Jeez, I've missed this thread for over a year, huh?
Regarding the game show stuff, I'm sure that contestants sign some sort of a contract that deals with stuff like this, but I otherwise have no idea. I vaguely remember here in some other context where something similar happened on a game show (maybe Who Wants To Be A Millionaire?) that they invited the contestant back on for another show, but I don't know if that was a contractual remedy or otherwise.
No idea about the pic of Tiger. It would depend upon the state law, I would imagine. Generally, whoever takes a photograph owns the copyright to that photograph, but presumably many states make it illegal to take or sell nude photos without somebody's knowledge.
Regarding Kagan... eh. Those hearings are a joke, and has turned into "just don't say something stupid". The last nominee to give candid answers was Bork, and his nomination was defeated.
No idea regarding the AIM stuff, either. I'm sure there are court cases on it, and it's important to remember that most Constitutional rights aren't absolute. It could be that the press "voluntarily" stayed away, or that the government was using authority under the Espionage Act. Again, no idea. (The reporters in Vietnam were there with the permission of the U.S. government, and could be removed at any time.)